Two extremes exist that define the outer limits of political justice in post-communist Eastern Europe. What will emerge as a more regular pattern will most likely fall between these two extremes. Hungary has already plotted a middle course in meting out political justice: there will be no blanket amnesty, but extreme sanctions will also be avoided. In this paper, the author examines the political atmosphere surrounding the debate on political justice in Hungary.
April 1998 - Prior to the revolution of December 1989, communist-controlled Romanian Radio and Television was the country's only broadcasting station. The government's incessant quest to save energy limited TV programming to two hours a day, from 8:00 to 10:00 pm. Day in and day out, the program began with a newscast on the activities of Nicolae Ceausescu, the president of Romania, and his wife, Elena. Had he done something important, this would be the only news that day. The first item to be sacrificed in this case was the international news. Sometimes the entire newscast or even the entire program was dedicated to Ceausescu's "extraordinary deeds and brilliant speeches."
“Economic Growth and Development in Post-Yugoslav Countries,” a Wilson Center article by Public Policy Scholar Franjo Štiblar, examines what happened in economic and social terms to post-Yugoslav countries after independence.
Riaz Khan, former Foreign Secretary of Pakistan and a current Pakistan Scholar of the Woodrow Wilson Center.William Milam, former U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan and a Senior Policy Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson Center, and Robert Hathaway, diplomatic historian and director of the Asia Program at the Woodrow Wilson Center.
Recently discovered vast reserves of natural gas and oil in the Mediterranean have the potential to alter the geopolitics of energy in the region and beyond. In additon to enormous political and economic consequences, there is significant potential for both cooperation and conflict. Expert on energy geopolitics Emmanuel Karagiannis provides an overview of the possibilities.
252. Tragedy, Transition, and Transformation: The Local-International Nexus of Transnational Organized Crime in the Former Yugoslav Republics
April 2002- Transnational organized crime in the former Yugoslav Republics is a complex amalgam of local and international crime groups. The crime groups are not mafia-like in that they are not hierarchical groups based on formal associations. Instead, these are network structures loosely cooperating, which are deeply embedded in their communities. Performing functions on the local level, they cannot easily be dislodged because of weak government, local passivity, and even outright complicity. Furthermore, these organizations have such strength because they draw on the traditional links among Slavic communities, such as established trade routes and the historic geopolitical importance of the Balkan Peninsula within Europe.
Winter 2005- (Published in TURKISH POLICY QUARTERLY, VOLUME 4, NO. 4) To the extent that the U.S. pursues a more active policy aimed at transforming societies and compelling changes in behavior in regions adjacent to Turkey, Ankara will be presented with continuing and difficult choices. Changes in the foreign policy debate on both sides, against the backdrop of turmoil in Iraq, make clear that the bilateral relationship can no longer be left on autopilot. Failure to explore a new approach could spell further deterioration in the outlook for cooperation.