Taxation and Inequality in Latin America

Despite widespread economic growth and increasing social expenditures, Latin America remains one of the most unequal regions of the world. The region's highly regressive tax systems remain a huge hurdle to reducing poverty and inequality.

Issues in this Series

The Political Economy of Progressive Tax Reform in Chile

Tasha Fairfield
With the March 11, 2014, inauguration of Michele Bachelet to a second, non-consecutive presidential term, Chile may be on track to enact its most significant tax reform in decades.

Progresividad y eficacia del gasto público en México: Precondición para una política recaudatoria efectiva

Carlos Elizondo
This paper explores ways in which Mexico can make fiscal policy more progressive and effective. (SPANISH)

The Uruguayan Tax Reform of 2006: Why Didn’t it Fail?

Andrés Rius
This article explores the success of Uruguay’s 2006 tax reform in (re-)introducing a comprehensive and progressive personal income tax while re-balancing direct and indirect taxes, eliminating inefficient taxes, and strengthening tax enforcement and compliance.

Instituciones, Impuestos, y Desigualdad en Guatemala

Aaron Schneider and Maynor Cabrera
In their paper, Maynor Cabrera and Aaron Schneider argue that taxation is a clear indicator of state capacity, and Guatemala’s challenges collecting tax revenue point to the country’s institutional and structural weaknesses.

A Economia Política da Reforma Tributária: o caso Brasileiro

José Roberto Afonso
Brazilian expert José Roberto Afonso, analyzes the political economy of tax reform in Brazil (Portuguese). Executive summary available in English.

Tax Reform In Latin America: A Long-Term Assessment

Vito Tanzi
Vito Tanzi's keynote speech at our taxation event on December 11, 2013.

The Political Economy of Tax Reform in Latin America: A Critical Review

Saulo Santos de Souza
Brazilian researcher Saulo Santos de Souza of the Federal University of Pernambuco explores the multiple ways that politics shape and constrain tax reform in the region.

Tax Incidence and Tax Reforms in Latin America

James E. Mahon
The paper provides an overview of the recent literature about the impact of taxation on inequality in the region, reviewing the major conclusions of recent empirical work and comparing Latin America to other regions of the world.

Taxation and Equality in Latin America

Cynthia J. Arnson, Marcelo Bergman, and Tasha Fairfield
Last year, the Wilson Center and the Universidad de San Andrés in Argentina convened a conference featuring leading tax experts throughout the Hemisphere. The results are summarized in this bulletin.

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