It has long been assumed that China’s “Reform and Opening-up” started in 1978 when the Third plenum of the 11th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was convened. In actuality, reform measures were initiated in 1977. In 1977, to promote reform, China’s top leadership made the decision to import advanced foreign technology and equipment. In this sense, reform was stimulated by opening-up.
Challenges in U.S. relations with great powers such as China and Russia derive not only from divergent national interests, but from distinct conceptions of nationhood, sovereignty, and modernity. Americans must therefore consider not only what the United States would like Russia and China to do, but how Chinese and Russians see themselves, one another, and the wider world, including the United States.
The leading source of water pollution in China is not industry or municipal waste, rather the country’s vast agricultural sector—pesticide and fertilizer runoff from fields and animal waste from industrial-scale farms.
On July 16, 2015, the Wilson Center Africa Program hosted a discussion on the conflict in South Sudan and the role of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the U.S., and other actors in the mediation process. Dr. Getachew Gebrekidan, a visiting scholar from the Southern Voices Network* and an Assistant Professor at the Institute for Peace and Security Studies of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia, presented his research on "The Role of IGAD: A Regional Approach to the Crisis in South Sudan." Mr.
Conflicting responses to Chinese leadership of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the prospects of the renminbi as a reserve currency make clear that the U.S. and its traditional European partners do not always see China’s growing influence in the same light. Differences may be exacerbated by Eurasian projects like China’s One Belt, One Road and Western groupings like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.
On July 16, 2015, the Wilson Center Africa Program hosted a discussion on engaging more women in science, technology, and innovation (STI) for sustainable development in Africa. Mr. Ayodotun Bobadoye, a visiting scholar from the Southern Voices Network* and a Research Officer at the African Technology Policy Study Network, presented his research on "Gender, Science, Technology, and Innovation for Sustainable Development in Africa." Ms.