History

Entangled Evolutions: Media and Democratization in Eastern Europe

The revolutions of 1989 swept away Eastern Europe’s communist governments and created expectations on the part of many observers that post-communist media would lead the liberated societies in establishing and embracing democratic political cultures. Peter Gross finds that it was utopian to hold such expectations of the media in societies in transition.

The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union

This is a collection of fascinating essays that address European identity in terms of politics, law, religion, culture, literature, and psychology, asking what “Europe” has meant in the past, and what it will mean in the future. In the massive literature of European integration, no other book takes such a long historical perspective nor deals so directly with the question of identity.

Commerce in Russian Urban Culture, 1861-1914

Tsarist Russia’s commercial class is today receiving serious attention from both Russian and non-Russian historians. This book is a contribution to that literature. Commerce in Russian Urban Culture, 1861–1914 examines the relation between the entrepreneurial world, especially business and banking, and the cultural milieu of Russia. Going beyond the commercial-cultural connection of charitable activity, the contributors to this collaborative project also study cultural activity undertaken by enterprises for their own purposes, notably bank and commercial architecture.

The United States and Pakistan, 1947-2000: Disenchanted Allies

U.S.-Pakistan relations have been extraordinarily volatile, largely a function of the twists and turns of the Cold War. An intimate partnership prevailed in the Eisenhower, Nixon, and Reagan years, and friction during the Kennedy, Johnson, and Carter presidencies. Since the Cold War ended, the partnership has shriveled. The blunt talking to delivered by President Clinton to Pakistan’s military dictator during Clinton’s March 25, 2000, stopover in Pakistan highlighted U.S.-Pakistani differences. But the Clinton visit also underscored important U.S. interests in Pakistan.

Between the State and Islam

Until recently, the study of the Middle East has focused almost exclusively on Islam and on the regime, especially on its non-democratic aspects. It has done so at the expense of accounting fully for the forces of skepticism, liberty, and creativity that struggle against Islamic conformism and state hegemony.

Second Metropolis: Pragmatic Pluralism in Gilded Age Chicago, Silver Age Moscow, and Meiji Osaka

By comparing North America’s, Russia’s, and Japan’s “second cities”—Chicago, Moscow, and Osaka—Second Metropolis discloses the extent to which social fragmentation, frequently viewed as an obstacle to democratic development, actually fostered a “pragmatic pluralism” that nurtured pluralistic public policies.

Nationalism and the Crowd in Liberal Hungary, 1848-1914

Hungary’s revolutionary crowd of 1848 was defeated in 1849, but crowds of other kinds and crowd politics remained central to Hungary as it fashioned itself over the next half-century. Nationalism and the Crowd in Liberal Hungary, 1848–1914 describes how the crowd’s shifting cast of characters participated in the making of Hungary inside the increasingly troubled Austro-Hungarian empire.

India and Pakistan: The First Fifty Years

One fifth of the world’s people live in India and Pakistan. Looking back on their first fifty years of independence, leading specialists on South Asia assess their progress and problems, their foreign and defense policies and their relations with the United States. The three coeditors, who compare the achievements of India and Pakistan in a perceptive introductory overview, combine journalistic, diplomatic and academic experience

In addition to these explorations and comparisons of internal issues, the final chapter reviews U.S. relations with India and Pakistan.

Churchill as Peacemaker

Winston Churchill had an acute appreciation of what belongs to war and what belongs to peace. We tend to remember his resistance to Nazi tyranny during the Second World War and his actions as a man of war. In this book, scholars from the United States, Great Britain, and South Africa examine his other actions and comments, those that reflect the primary focus of Churchill’s long career: his attempts to keep and restore peace throughout the world, from Queen Victoria’s little wars to the Cold War.

For Democracy's Sake: Foundations and Democracy Assistance in Central Europe

Assisting democracy has become a major concern of the international community since the end of the cold war. Not only governments, but private actors—foundations and other nongovernmental organizations—are playing a growing role in these efforts, rivaling that of governments and international institutions. This pathbreaking study examines foundations’ democracy assistance programs in Central Europe in the years immediately following the fall of the Berlin Wall, both measuring their size and evaluating their strategies.

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