International Development

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: Innovations and Challenges in Environmental Policy

Minister Silva began by highlighting the historical context in which current Brazilian environment policy for the Amazon is rooted. She stressed that the Amazon encompasses the largest biodiversity in the world, an estimated 20% of known living species, 9% of the planet's freshwater and around 220 indigenous peoples who speak some 180 different languages. In the last decade, several important initiatives have been launched. One of these policies eliminated many fiscal incentives and credit lines that encouraged deforestation and the predatory occupation of the region.

Crucial Needs, Weak Incentives: Social Sector Reform, Democratization, and Globalization in Latin America

Crucial Needs, Weak Incentives studies the politics of efforts to reform education and health services in Latin America in the 1990s. Both sectors were common targets of reform—education because of its economic importance, health care because of needs to reduce great inequities of access and opportunities to increase domestic savings presented by reforms. Both sectors also have large numbers of unionized public employees, whose presence affects patronage as well as political power.

Decentralization, Democratic Governance, and Civil Society in Comparative Perspective: Africa, Asia, and Latin America

Decentralization, Democratic Governance, and Civil Society in Comparative Perspective studies the relation of decentralization to democratization at both intermediate and local levels and analyzes how decentralization is transforming the relationship between the state and civil society. This book presents case studies from six countries in three continents in which decentralization of some parts of government has been attempted: Mexico, Chile, South Africa, Kenya, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

The Strategic Dynamics of Latin American Trade

The diversity of Latin American trade agreements established since the mid-1980s reflects a broadening range of strategic perceptions and orientations. The argument of this volume is that this increasing divergence among the arrangements reflects fundamental and growing differences among their broader strategic perceptions and political and economic objectives. These, in turn, are grounded in each country’s economic profile, the institutional configuration of its trade policy process, and the constraints and opportunities policymakers perceive at the domestic and international levels.

Russian-Eurasian Renaissance? U.S. Trade and Investment in Russia and Eurasia

The book begins by examining the overall trade and investment outlook in Russia and Eurasia. It then takes up critical sectors: energy, aerospace, automobiles, agriculture, and telecommunications. It turns to current institutional impediments to trade and investment such as problems in corporate governance, the banking system, and the rule of law. The final chapters look to the future and assess the prospects for economic reform, the movement to join the World Trade Organization, and the impact of political dynamics in the region.

Crime and Violence in Latin America: Citizen Security, Democracy, and the State

By virtually any standard of measurement, Latin America ranks as one of the most violent regions in the world. Violence and crime pose serious threats to the relatively fragile democracies of Latin America and the Caribbean. This volume offers timely discussion by attorneys, government officials, policy analysts, and academics from the United States and Latin America of the responses of the state, civil society, and the international community to these threats.

Environmental Peacemaking

How can environmental cooperation be used to bolster regional peace? A large body of research suggests that environmental degradation may catalyze violent conflict. Environmental cooperation, in contrast, has gone almost unexplored as a means of peacemaking, even though it opens several effective channels: enhancing trust, establishing habits of cooperation, lengthening the time horizons of decisionmakers, forging cooperative trans-societal linkages, and creating shared regional norms and identities.

The United States and Pakistan, 1947-2000: Disenchanted Allies

U.S.-Pakistan relations have been extraordinarily volatile, largely a function of the twists and turns of the Cold War. An intimate partnership prevailed in the Eisenhower, Nixon, and Reagan years, and friction during the Kennedy, Johnson, and Carter presidencies. Since the Cold War ended, the partnership has shriveled. The blunt talking to delivered by President Clinton to Pakistan’s military dictator during Clinton’s March 25, 2000, stopover in Pakistan highlighted U.S.-Pakistani differences. But the Clinton visit also underscored important U.S. interests in Pakistan.

Combating Corruption in Latin America

Corruption persists as a challenge to the consolidation of Latin American democracies and to their economic development. Contrary to many expectations, policies to reduce the size of government, such as the privatization of state firms, have not proved a cure against corruption. In some cases, economic liberalization seems only to have worsened the problem.

Director's Forum with Ambassador Chrétien

Remarks Introducing Canadian Ambassador Raymond Chrétien
By Lee H. Hamilton
Director's Forum
April 29, 1999

I am enormously pleased to welcome Canadian Ambassador Raymond Chrétien to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

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