Military History

Did Hiroshima Save Japan From Soviet Occupation?

In the wee hours of Aug. 24, 1945, Soviet long-range bombers would take off from their air base not far from the Far Eastern port of Vladivostok and fly east, across the Sea of Japan, dropping lethal payloads on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. At 5 a.m. that morning, two Soviet regiments would storm their way onshore, followed, in two hours, by a larger force. Within days, two infantry divisions would sweep across northern Hokkaido, cutting the island in half.

Prelude to the Euromissile Crisis

Prelude to the Euromissile Crisis

The Neutron Bomb Affair, the Netherlands, and the "Defeat of the Strangeloves," 1977-1978

Seeking Historical Reconciliation: The U.S. Role in Fostering Relations Between Japan and South Korea

Democratic ideals and cultural exchanges among nations have been seen as effective tools to encourage reconciliation between former adversaries. But that seemingly has not been the case in relations between Japan and South Korea, even if democratic values are shared. Wilson Center Fellow and Waseda University professor Toyomi Asano notes that it is important to share memories of the United States-led process of decolonization after the Japanese Empire’s defeat.

Contested Memories and Reconciliation Challenges: Japan and the Asia-Pacific on the 70th Anniversary of the End of World War II

The eyes and ears of much of Asia will be on Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe when he delivers a speech in August 2015 to commemorate 70 years since the end of World War II. It will undoubtedly be the most scrutinized of Abe’s public addresses to date, a fact that has not escaped the Prime Minister’s Office as experts have been assembled months in advance to advise him on the broader strategy and the appropriate wording for the occasion. 

From Sea Denial to Nuclear Deterrence: India's Quest for a Nuclear Submarine

From Sea Denial to Nuclear Deterrence

India’s Quest for a Nuclear Submarine

Tlatelolco Tested

The Falklands/Malvinas War and Latin America's Nuclear Weapons Free Zone

Still Cozy After All These Years

Sixty-five years ago, on June 25, 1950, the Soviet-equipped North Korean army struck south of the 38th parallel. The ensuing three years of seesaw warfare turned much of the Korean Peninsula into ashes: Up to 3 million Koreans were killed or wounded before the two sides signed a cease-fire in July 1953. Millions more were left to pick up pieces of their shattered, divided lives.

The Imagined Arsenal

The Imagined Arsenal

India's Nuclear Decision-Making, 1973-76

The relationship between the May 1974 “peaceful nuclear explosion” (PNE) and India’s later development of a nuclear weapons arsenal and delivery systems has been a subject of much debate. The spectrum of discussion ranges from scholars attributing a strategic vision to the entire early Indian atomic program, to those who argue that the test was inspired primarily by domestic and foreign policy considerations. Yet all discussion has been hampered by a lack of archival evidence.

The Persistent Legacy: Germany's Place in the Nuclear Order

The Persistent Legacy:

Germany's Place in the Nuclear Order

Despite its legal status, Germany has never been an ordinary non-nuclear weapons state. In NPIHP Working Paper #5, Andreas Lutsch explores the historical dimensions of Germany's ambiguous position in the global nuclear order and re-examines Germany's efforts to revise its NATO role as a host for US nuclear weapons. 

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