Trade and Development

Replicating Microfinance in the United States

Microfinance was pioneered in the developing world as the lending of small amounts of money to entrepreneurs who lacked the kinds of credentials and collateral demanded by banks. Similar practices spread from the developing to the developed world, reversing the usual direction of innovation, and today several hundred microfinance institutions are operating in the United States.

Economic Cold War: America's Embargo against China and the Sino-Soviet Alliance, 1949-1963

Why would one country impose economic sanctions against another in pursuit of foreign policy objectives? How effective is the use of economic weapons in attaining such objectives? To answer these questions, the author examines how and why the United States and its allies instituted economic sanctions against the People’s Republic of China in the 1950s, and how the embargo affected Chinese domestic policy and the Sino-Soviet alliance.

Taking Stock: American Government in the Twentieth Century

What is American government like today? How has it changed—and how has it remaind the same—over the course of the century now coming to a close.

The Quest for Sustained Growth: Southeast Asian and Southeast European Cases

This report assesses the “Washington Consensus” on liberalizing markets in pursuit of sustained economic growth. In 1997, the “Asian Economic Miracle,” thirty years of rapid growth and low inflation, ended abruptly with runs on Southeast Asian currencies and a massive flight of capital, precipitating deep economic recessions. Meanwhile, the countries of Southeast Europe had been struggling to reconstruct market economies out of the shreds left by socialist economies, their efforts complicated by civil strife or war.

At the End of the American Century: America's Role in the Post-Cold War World

“It was one thing,” writes editor Robert L. Hutchings in the introduction to the present volume, “to lead an alliance of Western democracies in a grand struggle against Soviet communism; quite another for the accumulated obligations of the forty years of Cold War confrontation to ensnare us in a continued international role against no certain foe toward no certain ends.” In At the End of the American Century, Hutchings brings together a distinguished group of authorities to review essential questions of morality, interest, politics, and economics in U.S.

Funding the Modern American State, 1941-1995: The Rise and Fall of the Era of Easy Finance

The current fiscal crisis faced by the American federal government represents the end of a fiscal regime that began with the financing of World War II. In this volume, an interdisciplinary group of scholars explores the history of American taxation and public finance since 1941 in an attempt to understand the political, social and economic forces that have shaped the current regime.

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