Recognizing a need to develop and strengthen urban-focused practitioner and policymaking ties with academia, and disseminate evidence-based development programming, CUSP, USAID's Urban Programs Team, the International Housing Coalition, the World Bank, and Cities Alliance teamed up to co-sponsor a second academic paper competition for graduate students studying urban issues. Six winning papers were selected for this publication to highlight the new research and innovative thinking of the next generation of urban planners, practitioners, and policymakers.
The conflict minerals movement is gaining traction. The movement is a pragmatic effort to address one of the principal drivers of atrocities and conflict throughout Congo’s tortured history: the scramble for control of Congo's vast mineral resources. In eastern Congo today, these mineral resources are financing multiple armed groups, many of whom use mass rape as a deliberate strategy to intimidate and control local populations. Armed groups and military units earn hundreds of millions of dollars per year by trading four main minerals: the ores that produce tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold. This money enables the militias to self-finance their campaign of brutal violence against civilians, with some of the worst abuses occurring in mining areas.
Steve McDonald's testimony about the United States' role in encouraging the transition to democracy, peace and stability in Zimbabwe before the Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health on December 2, 2010.
What is the meaning of Shari’a law? How can we understand its implementation in different contexts, given the diversity in the practice of Islam in Africa and around the globe? What are the elements of Shari’a that are particularly relevant to the position of women and gender relations in the African nation(s) under consideration?
International election observation is a work in progress, much like the international democratic system it aims to promote and develop. Today election observation is disproportionately focused on the pre-election and election periods at the expense of the post-election period. International organizations, national governments, and civil society are familiar with what is expected both before and during an election. Election “practices” exist and an international set of principles is now emerging to guide international elections observers both before and during elections.
The advent of democracy in 1994 came with the promise of a society whose race, political, economic and social relations would be the antithesis of what they had been under apartheid. The post-apartheid order would deliver what the ANC calls “a better life for all.” What has happened since the ANC came to power can best be summarized in three ways: First, there has been some improvement in the political, social and economic conditions of the majority. Second, democratic, policy and delivery deficits have emerged.
This paper is intended to promote discussion as to the role that trade can play in speeding development in Africa and the possible steps that can be taken to enable Africa to participate more fully in the global market. It does not cover all the barriers to expanding trade by African countries. Other important topics – notably infrastructure, especially ports and roads, and corruption – are discussed in other conference papers. It also does not include issues that are not directly related to trade and which can only be dealt with in the longer term, such as improved health and education, which were critical components of the success of the Asian “tigers”.
A binding constraint on African development is the continent’s crippling infrastructure deficit. Infrastructure is a crucial stimulant for growth and development. Investment, production and trade cannot occur without adequate water and power sources, road, rail and air transport and communication systems. Well-functioning and effectively maintained infrastructure is essential to Africa’s economic performance.
Author Irene Kitzantides describes the SPREAD Project's integration of agribusiness development with community health care and education, including family planning, in Rwanda.