Economics and Globalization Publications
This article is based in large part on a conference organized in April 2015 by the Kennan Institute, in partnership with, and with financial support from, the Henry M. Jackson Foundation, to explore the history, effectiveness, and evolution of sanctions as a tool of American foreign policy.
This paper offers a detailed analysis of the internal and external economic factors that have facilitated the rise of multilatinas in recent years.
InsightOut Issue 2 - Missed Opportunity? Chinese Clean Energy Foreign Direct Investment in the United StatesJun 10, 2015
When foreign investors locate new energy projects in the United States, U.S. workers and consumers benefit. These investments, particularly in clean energy, help maintain and upgrade infrastructure, reduce carbon pollution, lower energy costs, and increase the nation’s resilience to extreme weather events and global oil market shocks.
Exchange rates affect international trade, and they can be skewed by countries that are capable of buying and selling large amounts of currency to counter market trends. The International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization are charged with curbing such trade-distorting practices, but they could increase their effectiveness by improving communication and collaboration.
Opportunities for unconventional or shale oil and gas production in Mexico are in the earliest stages of development. Due to its close proximity to major shale field development in South and West Texas, Mexico is particularly well positioned to take advantage of unconventional extraction techniques. However significant challenges will have to be addressed.
China and Russia demonstrate a growing affinity in their national interests and diplomatic styles. Americans have often dismissed Chinese and Russian international ventures with broad attacks understood by Chinese and Russians as cultural condescension and used by their presidents to consolidate domestic support. The United States would engage China and Russia more effectively by focusing debate on specific policy issues and omitting more general criticism.
Marlene Laruelle argues that the United States should engage more in the Arctic as a means of establishing cooperation patterns with Russia after the Ukraine crisis. Furthermore, priority should be given to join projects and information sharing, and Russia should be supported in its efforts to open and securitize the Northern Sea Route.
Heather Conley argues that the United States should use its chairmanship of the Arctic Council to strengthen its internal and external relations on issues including: Arctic shipping, reducing carbon short-lived climate forcers, and increasing awareness and focus on the well-being of indigenous communities.
Willy Østreng argues that the Arctic Council should form a more cohesive, comprehensive unit by closing ranks and operating as the Arctic 8, acting in concert, and stand united in order to maintain control of regional developments.
Aki Tonami argues that Asian states, particularly Japan, South Korea, and Singapore, are mainly interested in the economic aspects of the Arctic, but will utilize their willingness to promote scientific cooperation for sustainable development in the region. The Arctic Council and other Arctic states should encourage intra-Asian cooperation on the Arctic and should attempt to settle historical and territorial grievances.