Economics and Globalization Publications
Through a generous grant from the U.S. Institute of Peace, ECSP organized a forum in Hong Kong to provide opportunities for 65 environmentalists and journalists from the three areas of Greater China to discuss improving the capacity of environmental NGOs and the quality of environmental reporting in the region. Part 2 (Chinese).
Leaf through expert reviews of 20 recent books and reports at the nexus of population, environment, and security, including The Greening of the U.S. Military, Return of the Population Growth Factor, and Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution.
Experts review new publications.
October 2005 - While all governments face the challenge of specifying fiscal arrangements that guarantee the state adequate resources to ward off physical or material threats to the citizenry, the new governments after the collapse of communism faced certain challenges specific to their capitalist transformation. They had to design tax systems within the context of creating an entirely new economic system. Fundamental public sector reforms eliminated the previous system's main source of taxation. As a result of privatization, East European states could no longer rely on appropriating profits from state-owned enterprises. In the past, the state would finance expenditures primarily by transferring revenue from state firms to the federal budget. With a large portion of these enterprises undergoing privatization, the state had to develop a tax policy to collect revenue from private sector production and private individuals. Thus, a wide range of taxes had to be put into place or be significantly reformed, including private property taxes, personal income taxes, inheritance taxes, consumption taxes, real estate taxes, capital gains taxes and excise duties. In allocating the tax burden across these different tax forms, leaders had to reconcile several competing considerations: which kinds of taxes would reliably raise budgetary revenue, which tax forms were hardest to evade, which forms would seem distributionally just to a population raised in a paternalistic state and lacking personal experience in honoring tax responsibilities and which would advance the country's foreign policy goals and international interests.
Countries that are overwhelmed by environmental problems tend to develop political and economic problems, writes Jared Diamond, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies.
Trade, Aid and Security: An Agenda for Peace and Development undertakes the challenging task of assessing the interrelationships between trade and aid, as well as the complex causes of conflict within the poorest countries.
The International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994, forged a broad new consensus on the international community’s approach to population issues. Over three years after the conference, it is timely to explore the U.S. response to the conference and to the challenges posed by the new consensus.
November 1997 - According to Jan Vanous, through 1996 the Czech Republic was "the darling of the Western economic and financial community." In 1995-96, the economy was growing at a satisfactory rate, the inflation rate was low, privatization seemed nearly complete, and the government kept a tight rein on spending. The national unemployment rate was no more than 3.5 percent, with the figure for Prague being just .2 percent. A joke going around the Czech Republic was that, in some respects, the Czechs should teach the West how to run a market economy.
ECSP invited Homer-Dixon, Peluso, and Watts to engage in a dialogue about Violent Environments, as well as the future of environmental security research.
ECSP Report 12 analyzes conflicts over natural resources, which are increasingly depleted by population growth, environmental degradation, poverty, and over-consumption. Table of Contents and Foreword.