Economics and Globalization Publications
Excerpts from recent official statements in which environment, population, and human security issues are prominently cited in the context of national and security interests.
The author outlines the patterns of accumulation surrounding oil, and their implications for conflict in Nigeria.
PECS News Issue 3 features a report from the Wilson Center's forum on HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, and an article on urban health in megacities by University of Michigan International Development Associate Brian Hubbard.
October 2005 - While all governments face the challenge of specifying fiscal arrangements that guarantee the state adequate resources to ward off physical or material threats to the citizenry, the new governments after the collapse of communism faced certain challenges specific to their capitalist transformation. They had to design tax systems within the context of creating an entirely new economic system. Fundamental public sector reforms eliminated the previous system's main source of taxation. As a result of privatization, East European states could no longer rely on appropriating profits from state-owned enterprises. In the past, the state would finance expenditures primarily by transferring revenue from state firms to the federal budget. With a large portion of these enterprises undergoing privatization, the state had to develop a tax policy to collect revenue from private sector production and private individuals. Thus, a wide range of taxes had to be put into place or be significantly reformed, including private property taxes, personal income taxes, inheritance taxes, consumption taxes, real estate taxes, capital gains taxes and excise duties. In allocating the tax burden across these different tax forms, leaders had to reconcile several competing considerations: which kinds of taxes would reliably raise budgetary revenue, which tax forms were hardest to evade, which forms would seem distributionally just to a population raised in a paternalistic state and lacking personal experience in honoring tax responsibilities and which would advance the country's foreign policy goals and international interests.
Experts review new publications.
Entre todas as conversas de “guerras de água” iminentes, uma ligação menos dramática—mas mais imediata—entre a água e a violência é frequentemente ignorada: a violência desencadeada pela fraca governança dos recursos hídricos.
This paper looks at the key objectives of the least-developed countries in multilateral trade negotiations, as well as of developing countries broadly, since understanding the least-developed countries’ objectives is a critical step to restarting the stalled negotiations.
November 1997 - According to Jan Vanous, through 1996 the Czech Republic was "the darling of the Western economic and financial community." In 1995-96, the economy was growing at a satisfactory rate, the inflation rate was low, privatization seemed nearly complete, and the government kept a tight rein on spending. The national unemployment rate was no more than 3.5 percent, with the figure for Prague being just .2 percent. A joke going around the Czech Republic was that, in some respects, the Czechs should teach the West how to run a market economy.
Issue 10: Appreciating the Complexity and Dignity of People's Lives: Integrating Population-Health-Environment Research in Peten, GuatemalaJul 07, 2011
From 1997-1999, a team of researchers developed a new environmental module for Guatemala's Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that analyzed the rapidly changing population-environment dynamics in the Petén frontier region.
Experts review new publications.