Trade and Development Publications
Global economic dependence on U.S. consumer spending is unlikely to dwindle, despite significant national and international efforts outside the United States to support demand and improve economic flexibility. Because that dependence increases U.S. trade deficits and threatens U.S. competitiveness, the United States should take measures to open foreign markets, assert U.S. leadership, and promote domestic confidence and growth.
Growing security rivalry between China on the one hand and the United States and Japan on the other has not shaken economic engagement between Beijing, Tokyo, and Washington. But how can regional economic integration and an enhancement of U.S.-Japan military cooperation move forward?
Mexico is at a critical juncture. The record shows that the first wave of reforms that began 30 years ago failed to deliver the desired boost to economic growth and competitiveness. The reforms now underway promise even bigger changes for the economy, particularly by opening up the long closed petroleum industry. This study offers a qualitative analysis of the deep economic reforms undertaken in Mexico during the past 30 years, the progress made and informed opinions on what is needed today to boost economic growth, enhance competitiveness and, hopefully, increase employment.
This article is based in large part on a conference organized in April 2015 by the Kennan Institute, in partnership with, and with financial support from, the Henry M. Jackson Foundation, to explore the history, effectiveness, and evolution of sanctions as a tool of American foreign policy.
This paper offers a detailed analysis of the internal and external economic factors that have facilitated the rise of multilatinas in recent years.
InsightOut Issue 2 - Missed Opportunity? Chinese Clean Energy Foreign Direct Investment in the United StatesJun 10, 2015
When foreign investors locate new energy projects in the United States, U.S. workers and consumers benefit. These investments, particularly in clean energy, help maintain and upgrade infrastructure, reduce carbon pollution, lower energy costs, and increase the nation’s resilience to extreme weather events and global oil market shocks.
Exchange rates affect international trade, and they can be skewed by countries that are capable of buying and selling large amounts of currency to counter market trends. The International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization are charged with curbing such trade-distorting practices, but they could increase their effectiveness by improving communication and collaboration.
China and Russia demonstrate a growing affinity in their national interests and diplomatic styles. Americans have often dismissed Chinese and Russian international ventures with broad attacks understood by Chinese and Russians as cultural condescension and used by their presidents to consolidate domestic support. The United States would engage China and Russia more effectively by focusing debate on specific policy issues and omitting more general criticism.
Aki Tonami argues that Asian states, particularly Japan, South Korea, and Singapore, are mainly interested in the economic aspects of the Arctic, but will utilize their willingness to promote scientific cooperation for sustainable development in the region. The Arctic Council and other Arctic states should encourage intra-Asian cooperation on the Arctic and should attempt to settle historical and territorial grievances.
Ambassador Fried's prepared remarks for April 16, 2015 conference titled, "Assessing U.S. Sanctions: Impact, Effectiveness, Consequences."