West Africa Publications
Long before it came to the Arab world, spring swept through sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, Mozambique drafted its first multiparty, democratic constitution. The next year saw multiparty elections in what had been one-party states in Benin, Gabon, and Zambia, as well as the overthrow of Mali’s dictator and, subsequently, the election of new leaders. Every succeeding year brought new steps forward for democracy—in Ghana, Kenya, and the Republic of the Congo in 1992, and elsewhere on the continent in subsequent years. The world only paid attention when South Africa joined the ranks of democratic nations in 1994.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (Wilson Center) sponsored a congressional study trip to Ghana and Liberia from March 20 to March 26, 2011. It was organized by Wilson Center on the Hill and the Africa Program at the Wilson Center. This trip was funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
Empowering Local Peacebuilders: Strategies for Effective Engagement of Local Actors in Peace OperationsApr 19, 2012
This USIP publication features, "Getting the Right People in the Room: The Burundi Leadership Training Program" by Howard Wolpe and Africa Program Director, Steve McDonald.
Unprecedented numbers of young people in weak and war-torn African nations, in short, tend to be characterized by the gap between what most youth need and what governments and international donors think they need, not to mention what they actually get.
Few regions in the world have been as unfortunate as Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta. The delta’s abundant natural wealth stands in stark contrast to its palpable underdevelopment. The oil sector accounts for approximately 95 percent of Nigeria’s export earnings and over 80 percent of federal government revenue, but for nearly two decades the delta has been mired in conflict and violence that threatens human security and the national economy.
What is the meaning of Shari’a law? How can we understand its implementation in different contexts, given the diversity in the practice of Islam in Africa and around the globe? What are the elements of Shari’a that are particularly relevant to the position of women and gender relations in the African nation(s) under consideration?
International election observation is a work in progress, much like the international democratic system it aims to promote and develop. Today election observation is disproportionately focused on the pre-election and election periods at the expense of the post-election period. International organizations, national governments, and civil society are familiar with what is expected both before and during an election. Election “practices” exist and an international set of principles is now emerging to guide international elections observers both before and during elections.
This paper is intended to promote discussion as to the role that trade can play in speeding development in Africa and the possible steps that can be taken to enable Africa to participate more fully in the global market. It does not cover all the barriers to expanding trade by African countries. Other important topics – notably infrastructure, especially ports and roads, and corruption – are discussed in other conference papers. It also does not include issues that are not directly related to trade and which can only be dealt with in the longer term, such as improved health and education, which were critical components of the success of the Asian “tigers”.
Natural resource-related conflicts are the predominant types of conflict in northern Nigeria, according to research by Anthony Nyong. Predicted climactic changes will affect patterns of distribution and availability, and potentially further exacerbate conflict, he writes.
PECS News Issue 2 includes reports from events on environmental security in Africa, an article on integrating gender into WWF's programs in Nepal, and a review of Gunther Baechler's Violence Through Environmental Discrimination.