Germany

Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski: East Germany's Back-channel Negotiator and Hard Currency Fundraiser

Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski was one of the pivotal political figures in Communist East Germany, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Erich Honecker’s negotiator in a variety of important talks with the Federal Republic of Germany, Schalck served as Undersecretary of State in the GDR’s Ministry of Foreign Trade. In addition, he was head of the GDR’s Kommerzielle Koordinierung (Koko), a secret commercial enterprise whose main goal was to bring foreign currency to the GDR.

Austria, German Unification, and European Integration: A Brief Historical Background

To download this Working Paper, please click here.

CWIHP Working Paper 86

Austria, German Unification, and European Integration: A Brief Historical Background

Michael Gehler and Maximilian Graf
March 2018

West Germany's Secret Nuclear Assistance to Iran

West Germany was willing to secretly export sensitive nuclear technology 

Demolition on Karl Marx Square: Cultural Barbarism and the People’s State in 1968

It has been presumed that East Germans were passive after their failed 1953 Uprising. More recent scholarship has even claimed that they enjoyed a People’s State, in which Communist leaders sought to satisfy their everyday needs.

The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and the German Nuclear Question Part 1, 1954-1964

This posting is part of a series of document collections co-published by the National Security Archive and the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project to mark the 50th anniversary of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

How Modern was Hitler’s Dictatorship?

Scholars distinguish traditional from modern dictatorships on the basis of their goals and tactics. Hitler and Stalin epitomize the traditional, marked by reliance on violence and efforts to impose ideologies.

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