Romania

Paying for Retirement: Challenges for Private Pension Development in Eastern Europe

How to meet the economic as well as social needs of the elderly is a challenge for any government. It has been particularly taxing for countries transitioning from a command economy in to a free market economy, as citizens have had to adjust expectations for what they should expect from the private as well as public sectors to fund their retirement. Adapting expectations and educating current and future pensioners has been a tremendous hurdle for governments as they look to making fundamental changes in paying for pensions.

State Violence and Social Control in Communist Romania

A great amount of scholarship based on archival research has been produced so far on the organizational pattern, ideological drivers, and working methods of the Romanian communist political police, commonly known as Securitate. Following a totalitarian approach to the history of the Soviet-type regimes, scholars and former dissidents have described Securitate as a ruthless machine of institutionalized terror, focusing on the primary role physical violence and brutality played, especially in the first few years of communist rule.

Romanian President Klaus Werner Iohannis’ Washington Visit

Ceausescu and the Six-Day War: The View from Washington and London

British and American sources show the impact of Ceauşescu’s stance toward the Arab-Israeli war on his international image

Romania’s neutrality in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War distinguished it from other Eastern bloc states. Yet there is a common misperception that Bucharest’s anti-Soviet animus drove its positions during the Six-Day War.

Off the Record with Nixon and Ceausescu

Ceausescu's selective note taking shows limits of Romanian archives

In December 1973, Romania’s Nicolae Ceausescu sat down with Richard Nixon to review "new problems" and changes in the international system. The record of their meeting is compelling for reasons other than its content. 

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