25 Years of Independence: The Ukrainian Referendum | Wilson Center
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25 Years of Independence: The Ukrainian Referendum

On December 1, 1991, more than 92 percent of voters in Ukraine approved the Verkhovna Rada’s August Declaration of Independence. Mere days later, the Soviet Union dissolved and an independent Ukraine was born. The aftershocks of these events are still felt 25 years later, as questions of territory, sovereignty, and national identity remain painful and contested. What did the path forward look like in 1991 and how has this vision changed over the course of the intervening decades?


  • Nadia Diuk

    Vice President, Programs for Europe and Eurasia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, National Endowment for Democracy
  • Marie Mendras

    Kennan Expert
    Professor, School of International Affairs, Sciences Po University, Paris
  • William Miller

    William Green Miller

    Kennan Fellow
    Former U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine