Douglas Paal is currently Vice President for Studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He previously served as Vice Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International from 2006 to 2008, and as the unofficial U.S. representative to Taiwan as Director of the American Institute in Taiwan from 2002 to 2006. He also served on the National Security Council staffs of President Reagan and George H.W. Bush between 1986 and 1993 as Director of Asian Affairs, and then as Senior Director and Special Assistant to the President. He held positions in the policy planning staff at the U.S. Department of State and at U.S. Embassies in Singapore and Beijing. Dr. Paal is the Founder and a former President of the Asia Pacific Policy Center, and served on the board of directors for ATC International. He received his A.B.-A.M. in Chinese Studies and Asian History from Brown University and his Ph.D. in History and East Asian Languages from Harvard University.