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1. Encryptiona. A method of securing data, either for storage or for communication, that betterprotects its confidentiality and integrityb. Example: Windows’ BitLocker can be used to encrypt hard disks so that the datacannot be read by unauthorized users.
2. End-to-End Encryptiona. A method of communication encryption in which only the sender and receiver of amessage, and not any intermediary, have the ability to encrypt or decrypt itb. Example: By default, Apple’s iMessage encrypts messages end-to-end, meaningApple cannot decrypt them itself.

3. Authenticationa. The process of determining the legitimacy of the actor requesting some form ofaccessb. Example: A password system provides authentication.

4. Credentiala. A piece of evidence that supports authentication, such as knowledge of a password,possession of a certain object, or possession of biometric traitsb. Example: Two factor authentication systems require multiple credentials, such as apassword and a fingerprint.

5. Signature-based Detection (or Blacklisting)a. A method of gathering “signatures” (often computed indicators of compromise) ofmalicious programs and searching for them on a system as a means of detectingmalicious codeb. Example: On a regular basis, an anti-virus program checks for new updates to its listof programs known to be malicious.

6. Anomaly-based Detectiona. A system that attempts to establish a baseline for normal computer activity and looksfor deviations from that baseline as a means of detecting malicious codeb. Example: When a program downloaded from the internet exhibited strange behaviorand characteristics, an anomaly-based detection system flagged it as malicious andstopped its action.

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