John Logsdon is Director of Space Policy Institute at George Washington University.

When Sputnick was launched in 1957 it meant the extension of Cold War competition into space had been achieved. Spurred by perceived political challenge and the real fear of cosmic strategic threat the United States responded with an accelerated space campaign. In this way the issues of security and space exploration were limited from the start. Forty years later the pendulum has shifted. The Cold War is over, collaborative efforts in space are promoted and private investment in space exceeds that of government. All of this complicates the terms of a new 21st Century American policy for Space. John Logsdon describes the issues.