The project examines and develops a theoretical framework for understanding how the process of liberalization and democratization is affecting military behavior and civil-military relations in post-communist states. The study seeks to answer several key questions: Why are Russian military officers playing an increasingly important role in Russia? Why has this phenomenon not been associated with the transitions in Eastern Europe? What are the implications of changed military behavior for the future integrity of the Russian state and for the future of Russian democracy? Do these behaviors reflect a loss of state control over its coercive apparatus? If so, what are the implications of this matter of disintegration for Russian state behavior within the international arena? Specifically, will civilian inability to ensure that military officers comply with state policies undermine Russia’s ability to be a reliable partner in international collaborative arrangements?