Mr. Pan Ning is a Ph.D student of History who concentrates on the Cold War in School of History and Civilization, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an. He got the master degree from Shaanxi Normal University and earned a bachelor's degree from Weifang University. He is interested in U.S. foreign relations and, recently, the Civil Defense Policy of the cold war era.
The subject of Civil defense of the Kennedy administration which played an important role during cold war is unpopular. During this period, presidential and congressional support merged to approve enough funding to indicate a substantial civil defense commitment. After the Berlin crisis and the Cuban missile crisis were peacefully defused, however, US civil defense again receded from public and governmental consciousness.
The author attempt to investigate the civil defense during Kennedy period from two perspectives. On the one hand, he plan to finish the dissertation from the traditional perspective, namely, the policy evolution of the civil defense. This angle or topic is the basis of the second part. On the other one, he try to focus on the relation between national security policies and the society, especially the civil right movements by non-governmental organizations. The question he want to address in this part is why Americans never embraced civil defense.