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The United States Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA) was born from a threat and a promise. The threat was to eliminate the North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA, altogether despite the huge regional market it helped create. The promise was to make that market more beneficial to the U.S. and specifically to workers. Eventually, the three countries reached an agreement, but what exactly is the USMCA’s vision?

This essay is part of the series, "Strengthening North American Ties - A Must For Competitiveness," by the Wilson Center's Mexico and Canada Institutes. 

About the Author

Headshot of Alvaro Santos

Alvaro Santos

Professor of Law and Faculty Director of the Center for the Advancement of the Rule of Law in the Americas (CAROLA) at Georgetown Law
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Mexico Institute

The Mexico Institute seeks to improve understanding, communication, and cooperation between Mexico and the United States by promoting original research, encouraging public discussion, and proposing policy options for enhancing the bilateral relationship. A binational Advisory Board, chaired by Luis Téllez and Earl Anthony Wayne, oversees the work of the Mexico Institute.   Read more

Canada Institute

Bound by common geopolitical interests and strong economic and cultural ties, Canada and the United States enjoy the world's most successful bilateral relationship. The Wilson Center's Canada Institute is the only public policy forum in the world dedicated to the full spectrum of Canada-U.S. issues. The Canada Institute is a global leader for policymakers, academics and business leaders to engage in non-partisan, informed dialogue about the current and future state of the relationship.     Read more