This study was undertaken as part of a review of the Disarmament, Demobilisation,Repatriation, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (DDRRR, henceforth D&R) operation taking place in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Following the Joint Supervision Mission of the partners of the Multi-Country Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme (MDRP) in 2005, MDRP partners and the associated Trust Fund Committee decided that a review of the lessons learned would be helpful. This study aims to describe the situation on the ground of four foreign armed groups (AG) present in the North and South Kivu provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It then assesses the opportunities and constraints for the disarmament and repatriation (D&R) of these foreign AGs. The movements targeted for this research are the Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), the Forces Nationales pour la Libération (FNL) from Burundi and two Ugandan AGs: the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) and the National Army for the Liberation of Uganda (NALU). As the ADF and NALU usually operate together, they are often combined as ADF/NALU in this report.