In July of 2009, the Latin American Program and its institutes on Brazil and Mexico, along with the Global Energy Initiative at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. convened four experts from the region to talk about their perspectives on the potential for reform in four leading oil producing nations: Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela.  This paper provides a summary of the event, and in doing so evaluates the current climate for significant reform in these four Latin American nations.