According to the United Nations, over one billion people lack access to clean water and over two billion have no access to sanitation, the primary cause of diseases like cholera that take the lives of more than 6,000 children in poor countries every day. This seminar will examine the Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) in Karachi, Pakistan. The OPP was established in 1980 with the purpose of overcoming the constraints faced by the government in regularizing and improving katchi abadis (squatter settlements on government land). Dr. Arif Hasan will elaborate on the low cost sanitation program of the OPP and provide recommendations/lessons learned to improve governance and financing of low cost infrastructure programs. Dr. Michael Cohen will discuss issues of density and urban form through the evaluation of the first World Bank-financed urban development project, the Senegal sites and services project in the 1970s.