William Maloney is Chief Economist for Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions in the World Bank Group. He was Chief Economist for Trade and Competitiveness and Global Lead on Innovation and Productivity. Prior to joining the Bank, he was a Professor of Economics at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (1990-1997) and then joined the Office of the Chief Economist for Latin America, where he served as Lead Economist until 2009. From 2009 to 2014, he was Lead Economist in the Development Economics Research Group. From 2011 to 2014 he was Visiting Professor at the University of the Andes and worked closely with the Colombian government on innovation projects. He has published on issues related to international trade and finance, developing country labor markets, and innovation and growth, including most recently, Informality: Exit and Exclusion. He received his PhD in Economics from the University of California Berkeley and a BA from Harvard University. He also studied at the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia.