This Special Report containing two essays explores the implications of China’s WTO membership for that country’s economic development and social stability. Dorothy J. Solinger of the University of California at Irvine highlights the negative impact of China’s WTO membership on the country’s rampant unemployment. Lawrence C. Reardon of the University of New Hampshire argues that reformist elites in China consciously use WTO accession as a catalyst to marketization. Mark A. Groombridge of the U.S. Department of State, who offered commentary on these two essays when they were first presented, asserted that China has no choice but to integrate itself into the world economy.This Special Report stresses both the huge opportunities and the dangerous repercussions that Chinese SOEs face in the wake of China’s entry into the WTO.