In the coming weeks, the Mexican Congress will begin to debate the Energy Reform proposal presented by President Enrique Peña Nieto. The proposal aims to radically alter the legal framework for oil production in Mexico, and includes two changes to the Mexican Constitution. On June 21st, 2013, three experts on Mexican energy issues discussed the reform proposal, commenting on the urgency for change and highlighting the potential political, legal, and technical obstacles that it faces. This brief report summarizes the discussion. It includes an assessment of Mexico’s current political context, an analysis of the state of the Mexican oil and gas industry, and a commentary on foreign policy implications and important international lessons to be learned. The report concludes that the need for energy reform in Mexico is obvious and urgent. Mexican legislators must now work to pass a reform that both protects national interests and promotes a growing and competitive oil and gas sector.