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Extending the NPT - A Critical Oral History of the 1995 Review and Extension Conference is a record of a conference conducted at the Erasmus University Rotterdam on 22-23 March, 2018 as a part of the Wilson Center's Nuclear Proliferation International History Project. The conference in Rotterdam was not a traditional academic conference, but followed a critical oral history (COH) methodology with discussion between academic experts on one side and policy veterans on the other. This conference aimed at shedding new light on the indefinite extension of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1995. Given the upcoming 25th anniversary of the indefinite extension, and the growing role that the legacy of the extension plays for the NPT politics today, revisiting what happened and how in 1995 was an attractive prospect.

The funding for this project was generously secured by NPIHP from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Additional funding was kindly provided by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Erasmus University Rotterdam, and Erasmus Trustfonds.

To download the publication in full, please click here.


History and Public Policy Program

The History and Public Policy Program uses history to improve understanding of important global dynamics, trends in international relations, and American foreign policy.  Read more

Nuclear Proliferation International History Project

The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is a global network of individuals and institutions engaged in the study of international nuclear history through archival documents, oral history interviews, and other empirical sources. At the Wilson Center, it is part of the Wilson Center's History and Public Policy Program.  Read more

Cold War International History Project

The Cold War International History Project supports the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War. Through an award winning Digital Archive, the Project allows scholars, journalists, students, and the interested public to reassess the Cold War and its many contemporary legacies. It is part of the Wilson Center's History and Public Policy Program.  Read more