This is a rapporteur's report of a conference held in Santiago, Chile, and co-sponsored with the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, FLACSO-Chile.  The December 2008 conference, "Pobreza, desigualdad, y la 'nueva izquierda' en America Latina," included participants from eight countries--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Uruguay, and Venezuela--who explored trends in poverty and inequality under social democratic and populist left governments. This report is available only in Spanish.