A decade after the end of the Cold War, the United States faces the prospect of a potential Sino-Russian strategic realignment, a possibility that rekindles memories of the Sino-Soviet alliance in the 1950s. The development of this renewed Sino-Russian partnership has been facilitated by the delineation of the long-disputed border between the two countries, their common interests in economic and military exchanges, and their shared opposition to a “uni-polar” world order dominated by the United States. Left unanswered, however, is the degree to which China’s economic potential and Russian arms sales to China will enhance the two countries’ strategic partnership. What will be the political impact on the two countries’ bilateral relations of increasing Chinese migration into the Russian Far East? To what degree will U.S. national missile defense proposals promote the further development of a Sino-Russian strategic relationship?