Any discussion on the population/water resources nexus in the developing world tends to be clouded by preconceived notions. The very concept of “population growth” is invariably constructed so as to be linked with value-laden notions like the “population time-bomb” and “population explosion,” which are, in turn, closely associated with Malthusian catastrophe and social decay. This article explores the population/water resources nexus by using empirical examples from Africa in order to isolate some of the strategically important issues that policymakers should recognize.