Participants included:
David Albright, President, Institute for Science and International Security;
Shahram Chubin, Director of Research, Geneva Centre for Security Policy;
Larry Diamond, Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution (chair);
Robert Einhorn, Senior Adviser, International Security Program, Center for Strategic and International Studies;
Haleh Esfandiari, Director, Middle East Program, Woodrow Wilson Center (chair);
Geoffrey Kemp, Director of Regional Strategic Programs, The Nixon Center;
Robert Litwak, Director, Division of International Studies, Woodrow Wilson Center (chair);
Michael McFaul, Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution (commentator);
Najmeddin Meshkati, Professor of Engineering, University of Southern California;
Abbas Milani, Research Fellow, Hoover Institution & Visiting Professor of Political Science, Stanford University; and
Henry Sokolski, Executive Director, Nonproliferation Policy Education Center.