Today’s population of 7 billion people has a significant impact on the planet’s natural resources and on global security. Seven critical challenges—security, climate change, water scarcity, food insecurity, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and future population growth—are affected by population dynamics in complex ways that demand holistic solutions. One effective and relatively inexpensive way to meet these challenges is to empower women by improving their access to education and health care, including family planning.